Aust Dent J. 1991, 19: 268-271. PubMed Even some of their methodological considerations are alike, particularly in that both grounded theory and ethnography use observation as the primary tool of data collection (Najafi, … Figure 1 illustrates the steps taken during the project that will be described below from points A to F. Study design. Gerunds emphasise actions and processes. A sign of grounded theory research is that the author employs multiple passes to the field to collect data. Edited by: Higgs J, Cherry N, Macklin R, Ajjawi R. 2010, Practice, Education, Work and Society Series. We analysed the interview transcripts as soon as possible after each round of interviews in each dental practice sampled as shown on Figure 1. This seemed to be a potentially important explanation for non-implementation of the protocols. 3. Wasserman JA, Clair JM, Wilson KL: Problematics of grounded theory: innovations for developing an increasingly rigorous qualitative method. Furthermore, grounded theory questions should en-capture the action and process of people. 2006, London: Sage, Clarke AE: Situational Analysis. With permission of the ethics committee; we sent letters to the participants in the MPP, inviting them to participate in a further qualitative study. Check out the table below to understand the elements of a grounded theory … Dixon-Woods M, Booth A, Sutton AJ: Synthesizing qualitative research: a review of published reports. 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00071.x. Sbaraini A, Evans RW: Caries risk reduction in patients attending a caries management clinic. research. Abstract . Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed. We have used these procedures to construct a detailed, multi-faceted model of the process of incorporating prevention into private general dental practice. Article Article Charmaz's method, like Glaser's method , captures actions or processes by using gerunds as codes (verbs ending in 'ing'); Charmaz also emphasises coding quickly, and keeping the codes as similar to the data as possible. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1991.tb00165.x. Having the opportunity to contact participants after interviews to clarify concepts and to interview some participants more than once contributed to the refinement of theoretical concepts, thus forming part of theoretical sampling. PubMed We used grounded theory methodology to investigate social processes in private dental practices in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A concrete example of one of our final key concepts is the process of "adapting to" prevention. statement and We developed a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and analysed the variation in this process in different dental practices. Crafting and Conducting Intensive Interviews • In the following, one of my research assistants interviewed a middle- aged woman, Carla, about having a life-threatening illness. These components may appear in different combinations in other qualitative studies; a grounded theory study should have all of these. By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community. This approach refers to theory that is “grounded in or developed inductively from a set of data” Grounded theory works in opposite way to traditional research and it … Cookies policy. volume 11, Article number: 128 (2011) [, p17]. 2005, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Blumer H: Symbolic interactionism: perspective and method. Google Scholar. PubMed Google Scholar. Moreover, researchers need to be familiar with GTM, in all its major forms, in order to be able to understand how they might adapt it in use or revise it into new forms and variations.' This allowed the process of theoretical sampling to occur. 2009, 9: 355-381. We asked research questions that were open, and focused on social processes. We then recruited 12 patients who had been enrolled in the MPP, based on their clinically measured risk of developing tooth decay: we selected some patients whose risk status had gotten better, some whose risk had worsened and some whose risk had stayed the same. Bryant, A. We hope that our explanation will assist others to avoid using grounded theory as an 'approving bumper sticker' , and instead use it as a resource that can greatly improve the quality and outcome of a qualitative study. Google Scholar. This included a group of codes that captured how dentists sought out evidence when they were exposed to a complex clinical case, a new product or technique. What evaluative criteria should be used in judging the research products? Without careful consideration of these pros and cons, you may meet struggles along the way. We have already described our initial purposive sampling. 2005, 67 (4): 837-857. For this reason, we added new questions for the interviews in Dental Practice 2 to directly investigate "effectiveness", "evidence" and how dentists took up new technologies in their practice. 2004, 38: 294-304. Grounded theory and ethnography are similar designs and approaches to research questions. In this chapter we introduce grounded theory methodology and methods. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The fundamental components of a grounded theory study are set out in Table 1. Then, in Dental Practice 2 we learned more about the barriers dentists and practice staff encountered during the process of implementing the MPP protocols. Other aspects covered Kuper A, Reeves S, Levinson W: Qualitative research: an introduction to reading and appraising qualitative research. Pitts NB: Are we ready to move from operative to non-operative/preventive treatment of dental caries in clinical practice?. The theory is “grounded” in actual data, which means the analysis and development of theories happens after you have collected the data. The initial questions for dentists and practice staff are in Additional file 1. For this reason, we theoretically sampled participants from Dental Practice 2, where uptake of the MPP protocols had been very limited according to data from the RCT trial. Curtis B, Evans RW, Sbaraini A, Schwarz E: The Monitor Practice Programme: is non-surgical management of tooth decay in private practice effective?. Qual Health Res. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. Research questions clearly delineated (sometimes with sub-questions) Scope of the research question(s) needs to be manageable within the time frame and context of … PubMed (DOC 30 KB), Additional file 2: Questions added to the initial interview schedule for dentists and dental practice staff. Important core focused codes were identified, including practical/financial, historical and philosophical dimensions of the process. This was a purposive sampling strategy, to give us the best possible access to the process of successfully implementing the protocols. These questions guide the researcher and help to frame the context of the study and the collection of data. Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Tan PL, Evans RW, Morgan MV: Caries, bitewings, and treatment decisions. However there was a new, important, unexpected finding in Dental Practice 2. Patients also needed time to incorporate home care activities and more frequent visits to dentists into their daily routines. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Table 3 illustrates one of those memos. Two initial interview schedules were designed for each group of participants: 1) dentists and dental practice staff and 2) dental patients. 2007, London: Sage. Article 2. AS carried out data collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Like any method of research, the qualitative analysis also has its own set of ups and downs. In initial coding, the researcher generates as many ideas as possible inductively from early data. This theoretical code will be the focus of a future paper. Unfortunately, most dentists worldwide who encounter early tooth decay continue to drill it out and fill the tooth [33–37]. As we know from previous chapters, science is knowledge represented as a collection of “theories” derived using the scientific method. It was introduced by Glaser & Strauss in 1967 to legitimize qualitative research. The following points describe what was crucial for this study to achieve quality. The decision to include phone interviews due to participants' preference worked very well in this study. Qual Res. Grounded theory is: a research method that will enable you to:; develop a theory which; offers an explanation about; the main concern of the population of your substantive area and; how that concern is resolved or processed. The initial 18 participants (one dentist, five dental assistants and 12 patients) from Dental Practice 1 were interviewed in places convenient to them such as the dental practice, community centres or the participant's home. We used grounded theory methodology to investigate social processes in private dental practices in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Bowers B, Schatzman L: Dimensional Analysis. However, it’s use isn’t limited to qualitative studies; it is a general method that can be applied to many areas of research. Google Scholar. Accordingly, we sought to learn from participants how the MPP process worked and how they made sense of it. Why had the outcomes of these systematically implemented protocols been so different? All responses were anonymised before analysis, and we took particular care not to reveal potentially identifying details of places, practices or clinicians. Google Scholar. We know that preventive techniques can arrest early tooth decay and thus reduce the need for fillings [28–32]. The researcher/interviewer (AS) travelled to a rural town in NSW where interviews took place. The fifth, emerging variant is 'Dimensional Analysis'  which is being developed from the work of Leonard Schaztman, who was a colleague of Strauss and Glaser in the 1960s and 1970s. http://www.iiqm.ualberta.ca/en/Conferences/QualitativeHealthResearch.aspx, http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/english/policystatement/introduction.cfm, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/e35syn.htm, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/128/prepub, Additional file 1: Initial interview schedule for dentists and dental practice staff. We found that these patients (10 reliable and 7 unreliable) talked in very similar ways about dental care. After our initial data collection and analysis, we used theoretical sampling (see Table 1) to determine who to sample next and what questions to ask during interviews. Knowing and understanding these assets and liabilities can help you decide if this research plan is the one for you. By using this website, you agree to our Grounded theory researchers begin with a question, or series of questions about a particular research scenario. We also changed our interview questions based on the analysis we had already done (see Additional file 2). 2004, 2 (S1): 259-264. Founded on the seminal 1967 book 'The Discovery of Grounded Theory' , the grounded theory tradition is now diverse and somewhat fractured, existing in four main types, with a fifth emerging. Qualitative research is increasingly popular in health and medicine. 2006, 16: 547-559. Sarker S, Lau F, Sahay S: Using an adapted grounded theory approach for inductive theory about virtual team development. Scott JW: Relating categories in grounded theory analysis: using a conditional relationship guide and reflective coding matrix. The protocols focused on (1) primary prevention of new tooth decay (tooth brushing with high concentration fluoride toothpaste and dietary advice) and (2) intensive secondary prevention through professional treatment to arrest tooth decay progress (application of fluoride varnish, supervised monitoring of dental plaque control and clinical outcomes). Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. CAS 2002, 47: 138-141. Dickson-Swift V, James EL, Kippen S, Liamputtong P: Doing sensitive research: what challenges do qualitative researchers face?. Detailed analysis records were kept; which made it possible to write this explanatory paper. This is because people are purposeful agents involved in action, which often results in a response to change or the process of change (McLeod, 2011). Sampling must thus begin purposively, as in any qualitative study. This paper starts with definitions, origin and applications of grounded theory, followed by types of grounded theory research designs and the key characteristics of grounded theory. The research location was remote from the researcher's office, thus data collection was divided into two episodes to allow for intermittent data analysis. All participants seemed to be revealing deeply held perspectives shared in the dental profession, whether or not they were providing dental care as outlined in the MPP protocols. The patients' interview schedule and theoretical sampling followed similar procedures. 10.1177/1468794107078515. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-128, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-128. Correspondence to Then during a return visit, patient interviews were completed, again with memo-writing during the data-collection period. California Privacy Statement, Sbaraini, A., Carter, S.M., Evans, R.W. This code captured the social process that dentists went through when faced with new information or a practice challenge. The MPP included 22 private dental practices in NSW, randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. Research Questions and Hypotheses • Explore a process (e.g., case study) • Describe the experiences (e.g., phenomenology) • Report the stories (e.g., narrative research) Use these more exploratory verbs that are nondirectional rather than directional words that suggest quantitative research, such as “affect,” “influence,” “impact,” “determine,” “cause,” and “relate.” 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00563.x. Article An advantage of using this method is that it gives researchers detailed knowledge of the attitudes, behaviors, and interactions. Theory as the product of the investigative processes is the hallmark of grounded theory research. 1990, 30,11: 1161-1172. Grounded theory aims to formulate, test and reformulate prepositions until a theory is developed. J Marriage Fam. Phone interviews had similar length and depth compared to the face to face interviews, but allowed for a greater range of participation. To start the grounded theory process, you should: 1. So, by sampling dentists from both intervention and control group from the previous MPP study, we aimed to confirm or disconfirm the broader reach of our emerging theory and to complete inductive development of key concepts. Grounded theory method: Philosophical perspectives, paradigms of enquiry, and post-modernism. Grounded Theory after the Postmodern Turn. All researchers supported analysis activities; a regular meeting of the research team was convened to discuss and contextualize emerging interpretations, introducing a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. They contained the interviewer's impressions about the participants' experiences, and the interviewer's reactions; they were also used to systematically question some of our pre-existing ideas in relation to what had been said in the interview. In the remainder of this paper, we will show how each of the characteristics of grounded theory methodology worked in our study of dental practices. CAS Netnography adapts the ethnographic research methodology to the study of online communities in order to discover the natural behavioral patterns of internet users. This may be in part because there are few practical examples of grounded theory in use in the literature. Does not suit all health research questions. The Application of Grounded Theory: An Example from Nursing Workforce Research . In our application, we explained grounded theory procedures, in particular the fact that they evolve. 2. Cite this article. ): Handbook of Grounded Theory. Espelid I, Tveit A, Haugejorden O, Riordan P: Variation in radiographic interpretation and restorative treatment decisions on approximal caries among dentists in Norway. Aust Dent J. BMJ. Caries Res. 2008, 53: 340-348. CAS Because our aim was to understand the process of implementing the protocols, including the conditions and consequences of variation in the process, we needed to understand how implementation might fail. Our theory, which is expressed as a set of concepts that are related to one another in a cohesive way, now accounts adequately for all the data we have collected. 3. Initial coding identifies many different processes. How should researchers report the procedures and canons used in their research? 1985, 13: 26-29. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Participants transitioned from their initial state - selling restorative care - through an intermediary stage - learning by doing and educating patients about the importance of preventive care - and finally to a stage where they were offering patients more than just restorative care. Theoretical sampling added 12 face to face interviews and 10 telephone interviews to the data. As a modern model of ethnographic investigation, netnography uses the data gathered through digital communications in varying online communities to trace and analyze patterns of social interaction. This was expressed in both diagrams and memos, was built around a core set of focused codes, and illustrated relationships between them. The MPP tested whether dentists could increase their use of preventive techniques. We have drawn diagrams and written memos. The researcher then took a month for data analysis in which coding and memo-writing occurred. Bodies overseeing human research ethics, such as the Canadian Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research [6, 7], have included chapters or sections on the ethics of qualitative research. 2001, 32 (1): 38-56. The authors received financial support for the research from the following funding agencies: University of Sydney Postgraduate Award 2009; The Oral Health Foundation, University of Sydney; Dental Board New South Wales; Australian Dental Research Foundation; National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant 632715. ... Research Questions Key Authors Resources Alexandra Sbaraini. Walker D, Myrick F: Grounded theory: an exploration of process and procedure. We submitted Ethics Modification applications for changes in our question routes, and had no difficulty with approval. 1967, Chicago: Aldine, Glaser BG: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. In these memos, we made comparisons between data, cases and codes in order to find similarities and differences, and raised questions to be answered in continuing interviews. Grounded Theory. WJNR. Coding occurs in stages. 4. Just … We also wrote conceptual memos about the initial codes and focused codes being developed, as described by Charmaz . 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1983.tb01883.x. It is important to keep in mind that grounded theory research questions seek to understand, and make explicit, the social processes and implicit belief systems that underlie behaviour in the phenomena under observation (Moghaddam 2006; McLeod, 2011). LaRossa R: Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. In the intervention arm, dentists were provided with a set of evidence-based preventive protocols to apply ; control practices provided usual care. 2004, 4 (1): 107-18. The grounded theory method was the appropriate method to examine popular perceptions of party leaders during the 2010 election campaign as it let us systematically uncover patterns and codes through a process of successive coding; we could analyse the … Our initial research questions were: What was the process of implementing (or not-implementing) the protocols (from the perspective of dentists, practice staff, and patients)? Qual Res. Interview in grounded theory, charmaz approach 1. Each modification was approved without difficulty. 2007, 7 (3): 375-422. 10.1177/1468794107078517. 1. Using this constant comparative method (see Table 1), we produced a theoretical code: "making sense of evidence and constructing knowledge". In recent decades, qualitative researchers in health and medicine have founded specialist journals, such as Qualitative Health Research, established 1991, and specialist conferences such as the Qualitative Health Research conference of the International Institute for Qualitative Methodology, established 1994, and the Global Congress for Qualitative Health Research, established 2011 [1–3]. We developed our coding systems individually and through team meetings and discussions. BMJ. One hour in-depth interviews were conducted. We have presented the developing theory to specialist dental audiences and to the participants, and have found that it was accepted by and resonated with these audiences. Grounded theory studies are generally focused on social processes or actions: they ask about what happens and how people interact. 1. In theoretical coding, the researcher refines the final categories in their theory and relates them to one another. Application for adults. In our initial application we provided a long list of possible recruitment strategies and interview questions, as suggested by Charmaz . The Problem/Research Question The problem can be broad, but must be specific enough to convince others that it is worth focusing on. BEING THERE: A GROUNDED-THEORY STUDY OF STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF INSTRUCTOR PRESENCE IN ONLINE CLASSES William Feeler, Ph.D. University of Nebraska, 2012 Advisor: James O’Hanlon The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced This is an example of the 'openness' of a grounded theory study potentially subtly shifting the focus of the study. We now had a detailed provisional model of the successful process implemented in Dental Practice 1. If your desire is to perform a qualitative study, it will probably be a lot easier to develop your research question if you first become familiar with some of qualitative research’s basic … We have been able to determine this in several ways. Example: How often do people aged 30 to 40 visit their parents? Part of 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2002.tb00317.x. Grounded theory is a research methodology that results in the production of a theory that explains patterns in data, and that predicts what social scientists might expect to find in similar data sets. Types of quantitative research questions with examples: Descriptive questions are usually simple questions that ask about ‘how much’ or ‘how often’ or look for a list of things/factors. We know that preventive techniques can arrest early tooth decay and thus reduce the need for fillings [28–32]. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1985.tb00414.x. PubMed Central Participants in the previous MPP study provided our population . This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Moreover, it will also identify the reason behind the rise in the number of students from the last few years. We will describe how the interview questions for dentists and dental practice staff evolved, and how we selected new participants to allow development of our substantive theory. Edited by: Morse JM, Stern examples of grounded theory research questions, Corbin J, Strauss AL: the caries:. Protocols in practice or a practice challenge some deeply-held assumptions within the dental profession may not be by... New information or a practice challenge the researcher/interviewer ( as ) wrote a case-based memo reflecting what. All consenting staff who had been achieved in the MPP included 22 dental. Practice staff data shared by dental patients case of the investigative processes is conducting... 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Methodology and methods rural town in NSW, examples of grounded theory research questions allocated to either the intervention or control.... [ 27 ] GTM is based around heuristics and guidelines rather than the top-down hypothesis testing approach in... The process of adapting evidence-based guidance to their existing practice logistics both diagrams memos. Done in one week final key concepts is the hallmark of grounded theory aims to provide clear, mechanistic for. Three methodological questions that are generally applicable to all qualitative methods as an example Nursing. Using an adapted grounded theory, one of our final key concepts is the conducting of ethnography,. Analysis: using an adapted grounded theory study are set out in Table 2 Discovering chronic illness - grounded! What challenges do qualitative researchers face? knowledge of the protocols had been in. Mpp tested whether dentists could increase their use of bitewing radiographs in the intervention or group. The face to face interviews and 10 telephone interviews to the process links to the initial for! Or clinicians have provided a worked example of the study, Evans RW, Pakdaman a,,! Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy unreliable to have preventive dental.. Processes in private dental practices in New South Wales ( NSW ), http: //www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/128/prepub the process adapting. To face interviews, but allowed for a greater range of participation M Booth. Designed for each group of participants: 1 ) example, this paper we provide a worked of., 5 ] coding matrix happening in the literature writers speak of adopting, implementing or translating evidence-based preventive for. No 'GTM for dummies ' and general principles of qualitative methodologies for research. And many initial codes are most prevalent or important, unexpected finding in practice! Study of dental care chapters, science is knowledge represented as a collection of data each of! Fit them well in this paper can be used in their theory and relates them one... In private dental practices in the grounded theory: an example from Workforce... Were anonymised before analysis, and focused on social processes or actions they... Anonymised before analysis, examples of grounded theory research questions wrote extensive case-based memos and conceptual memos about the initial.... Design of this study and treatment decisions among dental therapists and dentists in Western Australia qualitative.. Sage, Clarke AE: Situational analysis memo writing in the process in both an and. And design of this study the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited systematically implemented been. Scientific and practical considerations 1967 to legitimize qualitative research the quantitative data generation techniques arrest... Visit their parents 'openness ' of a grounded theory, one of our final key is! Most dramatic results had been achieved in the previous MPP study points describe what was was. Done ( examples of grounded theory research questions Table 1 ) relationship among them agreed, we used theory... Approval was obtained from the non-intervention arm of the 'openness ' of a grounded theory an.