tetrachord of a major scale. 4: D. 5: E. 6: F#. If you ascend 1 semi-tone from F#, you get G... presto! Melodic Minor Scale: 1 2 ♭3 4 5 6 7 8 (ascending) 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 ♭7 8 (descending). The scale formula is 1 b3 4 5 b7. The pentatonic scale can be major or minor. Dominant chords have a major third and a minor seventh (b7). The ear tends to perceive major and minor as having contrasting personalities; a contrast that is most obvious when the two are played back to back. That means, “A” is the relative minor of C. Very simple! The Moods of Major and Minor ● In the C minor scale, E flat is three half steps above C, so the minor third is Eb. Consider the following example... Natural D Minor Scale = D - E - F - G - A - B♭- C - D, The formula for the Relative Minor Scale = 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 ♭7 8 (ascending and descending). In the case of A minor pentatonic we will use the A major scale notes to apply our scale formula. Think of a major scale, for example, the C major scale. Minor Scales: Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic, In major scales, half steps appear after the 3. This is what the modes are. • A major chord contains the 1st, 3rd, and 5th degree of the major scale. 2: B. The Melodic Minor Scale is represented by the formula 1 2 ♭3 4 5 6 7 8 ascending, and 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 ♭7 8 descending where each degree of the scale is represented by a number. The Natural Minor Scale is the sixth mode of the major scale. A minor chord? Major and Minor Pentatonic Scale. It is a seven note 'octave-repeating' scale consisting of 5 whole-steps (tones) and 2 half-steps (semitones) e.g., The 'C Major' diatonic scale would read as follows: 2. MINOR SCALES: There are 3 forms of minor scales: natural, harmonic and melodic. These notes follow a formula where no note name is repeated. Harmonic Minor Scale: 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 7 8 (ascending and descending). Once again, bending the minor third up to the major third is a nice bluesy sound. This scale starts on the sixth degree of its relative major scale. Privacy • Arranging these notes into a single octave with our first note of C as the root, we can create the major pentatonic scale, C, D, E, G, and A with scale degrees of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 (8 representing the When you play all the notes in a minor key signature, you are playing the minor scale. Every Major Scale has a relative Natural Minor Scale and every Minor Scale has a relative Major Scale. Every pentatonic key can have one of two possible tonalities. Music Scales are related by their key signatures: Major to Minor and Minor to Major. Here are all the relative major/minor relationships out there: C major(relative major) / A minor(relative minor) Db major(relative major) / Bb minor(relative minor) We tend to say that major scales have a ‘happier’ and ‘cheerier’ sound, whereas minor scales have By altering these notes we also change the intervals which make up the scale. Major Pentatonic Scales. About • It consists of 12 notes, each a semitone apart. This combination of notes is called the minor scale. (raised by 1 semitone). A Melodic Minor = A - B - C - D - E - F# - G# - A - G - F - E - D - C - B - A (ascending and descending). A Major scale notes are: 1: A. By using this formula we ensure that, regardless of the starting note, the notes will always have the same distances between them. For instance, since the 6th degree of F major is D, the relative minor of F major is D minor.. • The pattern of steps in a major scale is WWHWWWH whereas this pattern in a minor scale is WHWWHWW. Substitute the notes of the A Major Scale into the formula and make the necessary adjustments to all accidentals. Video Lesson 1 The Major Scale Formula in my contemporary music theory series. What it means is that to build a major chord, play the 1st, 3rd and 5th notes in major scale. Remember that the key of "E major" has 4 sharps. The diatonic pattern is as follows: whole - whole - half - whole - whole - whole - half    C major scale:    C -whole- D -whole- E -half- F -whole- G -whole- A -whole- B -half- C, whole - half - whole - whole - half - whole - whole    A minor scale:    A -whole- B -half- C -whole- D -whole- E -half- F -whole- G -whole- A. The major pentatonic scale contains 5 notes of the major scale, and the minor pentatonic scale contains 5 notes of the minor scale. 1. The tonalities are called “relative major” and “relative minor”. This formula is the same sequence as the major scale formula, but it begins on a different note. The formula for the minor scale is whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole. Minor scales provide a darker, and often more complex sound than major scales. The relationship between the major and minor scales is one of the most important relationships in music. Major and minor scales are built similarly. It is sometimes referred to as the Aeolian mode, e.g., if you are in the key of C and move up 6 notes, counting C as number 1, you reach A. Because of this, the key of A minor is called the relative minor of C major.Every major key has a relative minor, which starts on the 6th scale degree or step. • It is the third note that makes all the difference between a major scale and a minor scale. Natural Minor scale-- a scale that contains half-steps between 2-3 and 5-6 scale degrees (the natural form). Flatten the 3rd note so that F# becomes F, Flatten the 6th note so that B becomes B♭, Flatten the 7th note so that C# becomes C, Presto! Lets build one in G. A whole step from G is A. To build a C natural minor scale, starting on C, we take a whole step to D. ●  In the C minor scale, E flat is three half steps above C, so the minor third is Eb. The minor scale is created with a formula, just like the major scale. This ‘b’ means to ‘flat the third’ or to lower the 3rd by a half tone. If we want to use the formula for calculating our Harmonic Minor Scales we need to know the notes of the Major Keynote Scale. The major scale is a series of 7 notes that are a subset of the 12 notes in the chromatic scaleA scale consisting of all 12 of the notes used in modern music.. First start with the root note, C, and follow the formula: A whole step from C is D. A whole step from D is E. A half step from E is F. A whole step from F is G. A whole step from G is A. EXAMPLE: You want to play a "G major" chord so use G B D. What if you want to play an "E major" chord? The Major scale and its relative Minor Scale share the same Key Signature. But what is the relative minor scale? and desc. What Are Major and Minor 7ths and How Are They Formed? The formula for building a natural minor scale is whole step – half step – whole step – whole step – half step – whole step – whole step. 5 – Memorize the whole-half step formulas for the major and natural minor scale. Major 3rd interval = two whole steps Minor 3rd interval = one and a half steps 1 - 3 = major 3rd 2 - 4 = minor 3rd 3 - 5 = minor 3rd 4 - 6 = major 3rd 5 - 7 = major 3rd 6 - 1 = minor 3rd 7 - 2 = minor 3rd The Dorian Scale, or mode, is the second of the seven modes. Notice how the two half steps are always separated by either two or three whole steps; this system of intervals is the diatonic pattern. Here is the scale ‘formula’ for the major scale: Major scale formula. The C minor scale consists of:   C -whole- D -half- Eb -whole- F -whole- G -half- Ab -whole- Bb -whole- C, Understand the Pattern of Black Piano Keys. The difference is that is D Dorian starts on another step in the scale, the D note (see picture below). 1. We have a D Natural Minor Scale: D - E - F - G - A - B♭ - C - D - C - B♭- A - G - F - E - D (asc. The differences between the two are: Major and minor scales are variations of the diatonic scale, which is a musical scale built with intervals of 5 whole steps and 2 half steps. 3: C#. If we flatten the 3rd and 7th in A major we get this… 1: A. If you see no sharps or flats in the key signature, you are in the key of C Major or A Minor. G Harmonic Minor: G - A - B♭ - C - D - E♭- F# - G - F# - E♭- D - C - B♭- A - G. If you are confused about 'descending', go to the last note (end) and work backwards towards the middle... you always move from the lowest note to the highest note. Diatonic Scales - consist of tones and semi-tones. Consider the following example... A Melodic Minor = A - B - C - D - E - F# - G# - A, Use Table 1 (step method) to determine the notes of the A Major Scale: A - B - C# - D - E - F# - G# - A The Major Scale pattern WWHWWWH Another way to think of the major scale notes is as numbers - the first note C=1 and the second note D=2 and the third note in the scale E=3 and so on. It ascends or descends for one octave using the signature of the major scale. • A minor chord contains the 1st, flattened 3rd, and 5th degree of the major scale of that note. In this section you will learn how to build, play, practice, and solo with the minor blues scale in a jazz setting, as well as check out a sample solo to help you bring this scale from the page and onto the fretboard in your practice routine. The name notes on the major scale include a natural minor scale, with the exception that it is created from the sixth note on the major scale. Each note in a given music scale is given a technical name: A scale degree is the name given to each note of the scale in relation to the tonic or root note which is the first degree of a diatonic scale. For example, the C chromatic scale would read as follows: Diatonic Scales are divided into 2 kinds: The simplest way to determine any Major Scale is to use the Step Method between each of the 8 notes in the scale. The illustration below shows the names of the scale degrees in C Major. To find the keynote from given ♭ accidentals in the key signature: In a Major Key, look for the last ♭ to occur in the order of appearance of the flats in the key signature, and ascend 7 semitones, as that last flat is the 4th degree or Sub-dominant of the key... 4th degree to the tonic = 7 semitones. A shape for the C major pentatonic scale can be: *Notes played: C, D, E, G, A. Now look at those notes and compare to the A minor pentatonic. ● In the C major scale, E is four half steps above C, so the major third is E. Minor Third: 1.5 steps (three half steps) above the tonic. W - W - H - W - W - W - H. Using this formula, say we wanted to figure out the C major scale. There are both Pentatonic Major and Minor – the Minor is slightly more often used. Leading Tone is used when the interval is a half step, e.g., maj7 (B), Home • The relative minor scale is widely used in improvisation because it allows more ideas for the solo. Minor is perceived as more somber and melancholy. As we’ve seen, the C natural minor uses these same notes, except that the sixth note of the major scale becomes the root note of its relative minor. In this case, the scale formula is root, minor 3rd, 4th, 5th, minor 7th. You are in the key of G Major. Consider the following example... G Harmonic Minor Scale = G - A - B♭- C - D - E♭- F# - G, Use Table 1 (step method) to determine the notes of the G Major Scale: G - A - B - C - D - E - F# - G The difference between a major and minor chord comes down to one, simple change: the 3rd in a scale. Sharps and Flats are used in the formation of scales to fix the correct position of the tones and semi-tones. Now see a shape for the A minor pentatonic scale: What's a major chord? 1. The Natural Minor Scale is the sixth mode of the major scale. P.S. How is is different from the minor scale? The Major scale formula = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C major scale = C D E F G A B The Minor Pentatonic scale formula = 1 b3 4 5 b7 C Minor Pentatonic = C Eb F G Bb So you play the first note of the major scale, then the third note lowered by a half step, the fourth note, the fifth note and the seventh note lowered by a half step. Substitute the notes of the G Major Scale into the formula and make the necessary adjustments to all accidentals. For scale help, view the C minor scale highlighted on the piano keyboard, or read the notation. ●  In the C major scale, E is four half steps above C, so the major third is E.Minor Third: 1.5 steps (three half steps) above the tonic. In this case, the minor pentatonic scale contains the minor seventh, so that note sounds great. • Major scales produce feelings of happiness, whereas minor scales are known to make people sad. Every improviser who has learned how to use the major and minor scales must learn, right after that, how to use the relative minor scale.. The result is a Major Scale no matter what starting note you use. Relationship to parallel major. Natural or Relative Minor Scale . To find a Relative Minor from a given Major, descend (count down) 3 semi-tones from the major, e.g., if you are in the key of A Major, count down 3 semitones from, To find a Relative Major from a given Minor, ascend (count up) 3 semi-tones from the minor, e.g., if you are in the key of Am, count up 3 semitones from, First, second, major or minor third, fourth, fifth, major or minor sixth, major or minor seventh, Roman Numerals, i.e., I - II - III - IV - V - VI - VII - VIII, Names and their function, i.e., Tonic, Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant, Submediant, Leading Tone, Tonic (, Supertonic and Subtonic are, one step above and one step below the tonic, Mediant and Submediant are each a third above and below the tonic, Dominant and Subdominant are a fifth above and below the tonic. Formula: Whole and a half, Whole, Whole, Whole and a half, Whole. Major Chord Formula. The Harmonic Minor Scale is represented by the formula 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 7 8 where each degree of the scale is represented by a number. Most music relies on keyThe set of pitches that a piece of music is organized around. Please have a look at Diatnic Harmony to see how the numbers way is the best in the end. Therefore, the relative minor of C Major is A Minor. For instance if you start the major scale on the 6th note you are playing the natural minor scale and the 3rd degree of the minor scale is the major scale. Disclaimer • To find the keynote from given # accidentals in the key signature: In a Major Key, look for the last # to occur in the order of appearance of the sharps in the key signature, and ascend 1 semi-tone as that last sharp is the 7th degree or leading note of that key... 7th degree to the tonic = 1 semitone. 7: G#. (For i… Major Scale Modes Each note in a scale can be considered the root. Simple, right? The ‘b’ in this formula is a modification to the basic Major chord. If we want to use the formula for calculating our Melodic Minor Scales we need to know the notes of the Major Keynote Scale. The Melodic Minor Scale is the same as the natural minor scale but with a chromatically raised sixth and seventh degree ascending and restored to its normal pitch descending (natural minor). To guide you, here are the minor scales in every key: C = C - D - Eb - F - G - … b3 (flat three) means you take the third note of the major scale only a half step … Since we’re talking about different scales, let’s take a look at the major scale formula and how the order of note pitches defines the major […] It is sometimes referred to as the Aeolian mode, e.g., if you are in the key of C and move up 6 notes, counting C as number 1, you reach A. In the diatonic pattern, the third is either major or minor: Major Third: The third note in a major scale, two whole steps (four half steps) above the tonic (or very first note). The C minor scale is considered the relative minor scale of the Eb major scale because they contain the exact same notes. The Harmonic minor scale - Harmonic minor scales The Melodic minor scale - Melodic minor scales Major and minor scale generator with customizable tunings - Major and minor scales. It is fairly easy to finger on the guitar, fun to solo with and a great way to begin playing in a jazz guitar setting. What's the major scale? Once you understand it, everything is going to open up for you. The Natural Minor Scale is represented by the formula 1 2 ♭3 4 5 ♭6 ♭7 8 where each degree of the scale is represented by a number. The formula for forming a natural (or pure) minor scale is W-H-W-W-H-W-W. “W” stands for whole step and “H” stands for half step. 6 – Play a vertical A major scale on the spot using your memorized major scale formula. The minor pentatonic scale has a minor third, which may clash with the chord’s minor third. This is how Key Signatures are formed. The first and last notes (D) are the tonic, while the middle note (D) is an octave above the tonic. If you ascend 7 semitones from D♭ (the last flat), you get A♭... You are in the key of A♭ Major. The Dorian modes are comparable to the Major scales – D Dorian, for example, includes exactly the same notes as C Major. By now you should see that splitting up the Major scale into smaller easier to learn chunks is the best way to memorize the scales. The TONIC is the keynote or 1st note of every music scale. A natural minor scale can also be constructed by altering a major scale with accidentals. H = half step. In this example we see 4 flats - B♭, E♭, A♭, and D♭ on the clef at the beginning of a piece of music (key signature). The formula for a major triad is 1 3 5. Compare pictures #1 and #2, above: Due to the placement of these half step intervals, the third is the first note to reveal a scale’s major or minor status. Summary. Try It: Play a C major scale on your piano, and follow it with a C minor scale; observe the change in mood once the third note is struck. Finally! The major and minor pentatonic scale can also be built using four consecutive intervals of a perfect fifth (P5). For example, G-A-B-C can be the bottom tetrachord of the G major scale or the top tetrachord of the C major scale. Major is perceived as more happy and positive. The natural minor scale can be thought of as a major scale with the 3rd 6th and 7th notes lowered by one half step. In this example we see 1 sharp - F on the clef at the beginning of a piece of music (key signature). The 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th and 8th notes remain unchanged. ), The Harmonic Minor Scale is the same as the Natural Minor Scale but with a chromatically raised seventh degree ascending and descending. Also, most of the time when we refer to a ‘minor' scale we're generally referring to the natural minor. The descending Melodic Minor Scale is exactly the same as the Natural Minor Scale. So if C Major is C (1) E (3) G (5), then C minor will be C (1) Eb (b3) G (5). The minor blues scale is one of the most versatile scales that you can use in your guitar solos. This means they share the same notes, but because they start at different places, they have a different step pattern and therefore a different sound. Each scale degree can be described in several ways: Subtonic is used when the interval between it and the tonic in the upper octave is a whole step, e.g., 7 or dom7 (B♭) Minor scales sound different from major scales because they are based on a different pattern of intervals.Just as it did in major scales, starting the minor scale pattern on a different note will give you a different key signature, a different set of sharps or flats.The scale that is created by playing all the notes in a minor key signature is a natural minor scale. If we want to use the formula for calculating our Natural Minor Scales we need to know the notes of the Major keynote scale. Site Map, Whole - Whole - Half - Whole - Whole - Whole - Half     OR     W - W - H - W - W - W - H, D Natural Minor Scale - Ascending & Descending, G Harmonic Minor Scale - Ascending & Descending, A Melodic Minor Scale - Ascending & Descending, Lower dominant / same interval below tonic dominant is above tonic, Lower mediant / mid-way between the tonic and subdominant, Melodically strong affinity for the tonic / leads to the tonic / Subtonic-one whole step below the tonic, Octave above the tonic / tonal center / note of final resolution. 3 – Write down and play a C major scale, vertical approach (played across multiple strings) 4 – Build a pentatonic minor scale on a single string. A key has two components: a tonal center and some sort of scale, or set of pitches used for creating harmony and melody., a choice to use a pattern of seven notes forming a set called the major scale. Major and minor are often described in terms of feelings or mood. A Key Signature consists of Sharps and Flats which are placed at the beginning of every Stave of Music to fix the correct pitch of the key. The formula to build all major scales is: W W H W W W H. W = whole step. 2: B. The major scale formula follows the pattern W, W, H, W, W, W, H. The minor scale formula follows the pattern W, H, W, W, H, W, W. Lastly, you can take a modal approach to the minor scale. The 1st and last notes are the same except they are 1 octave apart. Chromatic Scales - consist of semi-tones only. The formula for a minor chord is 1 b3 5. This five-note scale is similar to the Major Scale, but without the 4th and 7th degrees. 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